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Portfolios and portfolio management

Portfolios and portfolio management

Understanding portfolios

The concepts of portfolios, programmes, and projects are frequently intermingled and often misunderstood. This article disentangles these concepts and explains the distinct features, objectives, and management approaches associated with each of them.

By gaining a clearer understanding of these terms, business professionals and organizations can make more informed strategic decisions and enhance the overall success of their strategic initiatives. It can also help an organization clarify whether the adoption of a project methods such as PRINCE2 for project management, MSP for programme management, and MoP for portfolio management can help it manage its projects, programmes, and portfolios.

Definition of portfolios

Portfolios represent the highest level of project organization within a company. A portfolio consists of all the projects, programmes, and operational activities grouped together to meet strategic business objectives. Unlike projects and programmes, which are about execution and delivery, portfolios focus on the big picture, making decisions about which initiatives to undertake based on strategic alignment, risk, return on investment, and other factors.

Differences between projects, programmes, and portfolios

Table showing the differences between projects, programmes, and portfolios.

Projects Programmes Portfolios
Purpose and objectives Deliver specific, tangible outputs within a set timeframe and budget. Achieve a broader set of strategic outcomes by managing a group of related projects. Optimize the allocation of resources across various projects and programmes to achieve the strategic objectives of the organization.
Scope and timeframe Have a defined scope and timeframe: they start, deliver their output, and then close. Have a broader scope, comprising multiple related projects, and their timeframe extends until all the desired outcomes are achieved. Are ongoing, with projects and programmes continuously added and removed based on strategic alignment, resource availability, and performance.
Management approach Emphasizes the delivery of a specific output, adhering to the project plan and managing risks and issues. Coordinates multiple related projects to achieve a common outcome and focuses on managing interdependencies and realizing benefits. Is less about delivery and more about strategic decision-making—prioritizing initiatives, allocating resources, and balancing risk and reward across the portfolio.

Portfolio management

Portfolio management is a dynamic decision-making process, whereby a business’s list of active projects and programmes is consistently reviewed and updated to meet strategic objectives. This includes the identification, prioritization, authorization, and management of projects, programmes, and portfolios.

Key features of portfolio management include strategic alignment, risk management, resource allocation, and benefits realization.

There are well-established portfolio management frameworks based upon best practices which organizations can adopt to help them better manage their change portfolios.

Importance of portfolios in organizational governance

At a strategic level, portfolios provide a vital link between strategy formulation and execution. They play a crucial role in organizational governance by offering a holistic view of all ongoing initiatives. This allows leaders to make informed decisions about where to invest resources to maximize value, manage risk, and achieve strategic objectives.

Portfolio management and strategic alignment

One of the primary purposes of portfolio management is to ensure that an organization’s projects and programmes are aligned with its strategic objectives. This involves regularly reviewing and adjusting the portfolio to reflect changes in the business environment, strategic direction, and resource availability.

By ensuring all initiatives align with and support business strategy, portfolio management aids organizations in realizing their strategic vision, managing risks, and maximizing returns on investment.

Projects, programmes, and portfolios

The relationship between projects, programmes, and portfolios.

How programmes and projects contribute to portfolios

Programmes and projects are the building blocks of portfolios. Each programme or project within a portfolio should align with the organization’s strategic goals. The collective performance of these programmes and projects determines the success of the portfolio. By delivering their specific outputs (projects) and outcomes (programmes), they contribute to the achievement of strategic objectives encapsulated within the portfolio.

Balancing and aligning projects, programmes, and portfolios

Balancing and aligning projects, programmes, and portfolios is a strategic activity that ensures all initiatives contribute towards the overall business objectives. This involves regularly reviewing the portfolio and making necessary adjustments in response to changes in business strategy, project performance, or resource availability.

Effective alignment and balance ensure that resources are optimally utilized, risks are managed at all levels, and the organization can adapt to changing circumstances while still staying on course to achieve its strategic objectives.

Effective management of portfolios

Essential skills for portfolio managers

Effective management of portfolios requires a range of skills including:

  • Strategic thinking to align initiatives with business strategy.
  • Leadership to inspire and guide.
  • Risk management to anticipate and mitigate risks across the portfolio.
  • Communication skills to deliver clear, timely information to stakeholders at the highest levels in the organization.
  • Soft skills such as negotiation, prioritization, the ability to see the bigger picture, as well as many other skills.

Key tools and techniques

A variety of tools and techniques aid in managing portfolios. These include risk management tools for identifying and mitigating risks, and communication platforms for efficient information exchange.

Business analytical tools and models such as SWOT analysis, PESTLE analysis, and cost-benefit analysis also support strategic decision-making in portfolio management.

Benefits and challenges in portfolio management

Effective management of portfolios brings several benefits, including:

  • Improved strategic alignment.
  • Optimized resource utilization.
  • Better risk management.
  • Enhanced stakeholder satisfaction.

However, it also presents challenges such as:

  • Managing interdependencies.
  • Dealing with uncertainties.
  • Balancing competing demands.
  • Ensuring effective communication across different levels and entities in the organization.

Role of governance in successful portfolio management

Good governance is critical to the successful management of portfolios. It involves defining clear roles and responsibilities, establishing decision-making frameworks, implementing performance monitoring mechanisms, and ensuring compliance with relevant standards and regulations.

Strong governance supports transparency, accountability, and consistency, which are key to achieving strategic objectives and enhancing stakeholder confidence.

Integrating projects, programmes, and portfolios

Integrating projects, programmes, and portfolios into business strategy is a two-way process.

On the one hand, the strategic objectives guide the selection and prioritization of projects and programmes in the portfolio. On the other hand, the outputs from projects, the outcomes from programmes, and the realization of benefits all provide inputs that can inform and refine the business strategy.

This integration ensures that strategic goals are transformed into actionable initiatives, and progress towards these goals is effectively monitored and measured.

Role of leadership

Leadership plays a pivotal role in promoting synergy among projects, programmes, and portfolios. Leaders set the direction, communicate the vision, foster collaboration, and create an environment conducive to success. They ensure that the goals of individual projects align with the programme objectives, and that the objectives of all programmes support the strategic goals encapsulated within the portfolio.

Through effective leadership, organizations can enhance coordination, manage interdependencies, and drive the collective success of their projects, programmes, and portfolios.

Evaluating success and realising value

Success in portfolios requires the realization of anticipated benefits. Success evaluation and benefits realization involve regular monitoring and assessment of performance against predefined criteria or key performance indicators (KPIs).

This includes both tangible metrics like cost savings or revenue growth, and intangible factors like enhanced customer satisfaction or improved brand reputation. A comprehensive evaluation of success and value realization enables organizations to demonstrate the ROI of their initiatives, learn from their experiences, and improve future performance.

The role of the project management office (PMO)

In recent years, more mature organizations have invested in developing project management offices (PMOs) not only at the project level, but also at the programme level and portfolio level.

Project management offices provide numerous benefits to organizations including:

  1. standardization and consistency
  2. improved governance
  3. resource optimization
  4. knowledge management
  5. strategic alignment.

Such organizations have utilised the best practice framework for portfolio, programme, and project offices – P3O® – to help them support the successful delivery of their portfolio of change programmes and projects.

Digital transformation and portfolios

Technology in modern management

Digital transformation has greatly enhanced coordination and collaboration in managing portfolios, programmes, and projects. Project management software, collaboration platforms, and cloud-based tools enable real-time tracking of progress, efficient resource allocation, and enhanced communication among team members.

These new tools facilitate the effective management of interdependencies, improve decision-making, and enable teams to work together, regardless of their geographical location.

Data-driven decision-making

Digital transformation has made data more accessible, facilitating data-driven decision making in portfolio, programme, and project management. Advanced analytics and visualization tools allow managers to assess performance, identify trends, predict potential risks, and make informed decisions.

In addition, machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms provide insights and recommendations, enhancing strategic decision-making at the portfolio level and operational decision-making at the project and programme levels.

Automation and efficiency

Digital transformation has also brought automation to various management processes, which has increased efficiency and accuracy. Tasks such as updating project status, tracking changes, scheduling meetings, or allocating resources can now be automated, freeing up managers to focus on strategic aspects.

Digital platforms also facilitate the documentation and sharing of knowledge, which contributes to learning and continuous improvement in portfolio, programme, and project management.

Portfolio management case study

TechGiant corporation, a global technology company, manages a vast portfolio of initiatives spanning various business units, including software development, hardware manufacturing, cloud services, and research and development (R&D).

Portfolio management framework

The company established a Portfolio Management Office (PMO) responsible for managing the portfolio and ensuring strategic alignment. The PMO developed a robust portfolio management framework, including a scoring system to assess potential projects based on factors such as strategic fit, potential return on investment (ROI), and risk levels.

Strategic alignment and resource allocation

Using the framework, the PMO consistently reviewed and prioritized the projects and programmes within the portfolio. When the company’s strategy shifted towards cloud services, the PMO adjusted the portfolio accordingly, prioritizing projects in cloud services over other areas. Resources were reallocated, and new projects were initiated to align with the strategic change.

Performance monitoring and risk management

The PMO monitored the performance of all initiatives in the portfolio using a set of key performance indicators (KPIs). Regular portfolio review meetings were held to discuss progress, address issues, and assess risks at the portfolio level.

Driving value and adapting to change

Over time, TechGiant’s portfolio management approach allowed it to effectively manage its resources and align its initiatives with strategic goals. The portfolio was continually refined to drive maximum value and adapt to the changing business environment.

In conclusion, this case study highlights the significance of a structured framework, strategic alignment, performance monitoring, and agility in effective portfolio management. The successful management of TechGiant’s portfolio supported the company’s growth and competitive positioning in the fast-paced technology industry.

Final thoughts

Projects, programmes, and portfolios are distinct but interconnected aspects of strategic organizational management.

Successful integration and alignment of projects, programmes, and portfolios gives a competitive advantage to organizations by driving greater value and better return on investments.

Organizations which invest in the management of their portfolios and constituent programmes, and projects by standardising their management approaches will reap the greatest benefits in an increasingly competitive market.

P3O® is a registered trademark of AXELOS Limited, used under permission of AXELOS Limited.

Portfolios FAQs



Are all projects part of a portfolio?

No, not all projects are part of a portfolio. A portfolio is a collection of projects, programmes, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Some projects might be standalone or not aligned with the strategic objectives embodied by a specific portfolio.




Can a project be in multiple portfolios?

Typically, a project is included in only one portfolio to maintain clear governance, accountability, and strategic alignment. However, in complex organizations with multiple overlapping strategic objectives, it’s theoretically possible for a project to be represented in more than one portfolio. That said, such a scenario could lead to management challenges and is not generally recommended.




How do you prepare a portfolio?

Preparing a portfolio involves a series of 5 strategic steps:

  1. Define portfolio objectives

  2. Align the portfolio with the strategic goals of the organization.

  3. Identify potential projects or programmes

  4. Collect a list of potential projects or programmes that could be included in the portfolio.

  5. Evaluate and prioritize

  6. Evaluate each project or programme based on its strategic alignment, potential benefits, risks, and resources required. Prioritize them based on this evaluation.

  7. Select

  8. Choose the most suitable projects or programmes for the portfolio to balance risk and return, while ensuring strategic alignment.

  9. Manage and review

  10. Continuously manage the portfolio, tracking performance of its components, and make adjustments as necessary. Regularly review the portfolio to ensure it remains aligned with strategic goals.




How many projects in a portfolio?

The number of projects in a portfolio can vary widely and depends on factors such as the size of the organization, its strategic objectives, available resources, and risk tolerance.

A portfolio should ideally include as many projects as can be effectively managed and aligned with the organization’s strategic goals, without overextending resources or increasing risk beyond an acceptable level.




Is a portfolio a project?

No, a portfolio is not a project. A portfolio is a collection of projects, programmes, subsidiary portfolios, and operations grouped together to facilitate effective management to meet strategic business objectives. It represents a higher level of organization that oversees and coordinates its constituent parts, which may include multiple projects and programmes.




Is a portfolio manager higher than a project manager?

Yes, typically a portfolio manager holds a higher-level position than a project manager. A portfolio manager oversees a collection of projects, programmes, and operations, ensuring alignment with strategic business objectives.

On the other hand, a project manager focuses on the execution of individual projects, managing resources, tasks, and stakeholders to deliver specified outcomes within time and budget constraints.




What are the benefits of a portfolio structure?

A portfolio structure offers 5 main benefits:

  1. Strategic alignment

  2. They ensure that projects and programmes are aligned with the organization’s strategic objectives, prioritizing resources and focus on initiatives that provide the most value.

  3. Resource optimization

  4. They allow for efficient resource allocation and management across multiple projects and programmes, reducing redundancy and maximizing utilization.

  5. Risk management

  6. By managing interdependencies across projects and programmes, they mitigate risks that may not be apparent at the project level.

  7. Change management

  8. They provide a framework for managing change across the organization, ensuring that project outcomes contribute to broader transformation goals.

  9. Visibility and control

  10. They offer a holistic view of all initiatives, allowing senior management to better monitor progress, performance, and benefits realization.




What do you mean by portfolio?

In the context of project, program, and portfolio management, a portfolio refers to a collection of projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations grouped together to facilitate effective management to achieve strategic objectives. The projects or programs in the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.

The main goal of portfolio management is to balance the trade-off of performance versus risk and align projects and programs with the strategic objectives of the organization.




What is a major advantage of portfolio?

A major advantage of a project portfolio is strategic alignment. A project portfolio enables an organization to view and manage all its projects as a whole, aligning them with the strategic objectives.

This holistic view allows for efficient resource allocation, better risk management, and ensures that the organization is investing in projects that offer the best return on investment and contribute to strategic goals.




What is project portfolio assessment?

Project portfolio assessment is the process of evaluating and prioritizing the projects within a portfolio to ensure they align with an organization’s strategic objectives. This process involves assessing each project’s potential value, risks, resource requirements, and strategic fit.

The goal is to maintain a balanced portfolio that maximizes value while managing risk and resource constraints. Project portfolio assessment is a key part of portfolio management and plays a critical role in decision-making around project initiation, continuation, or termination.




What is project portfolio management in simple words?

In simple terms, project portfolio management is the process of prioritising, planning, managing, and optimizing a group of projects and programmes to ensure they align with an organization’s strategy, goals, and resources.




What is the difference between a program and a portfolio?

A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may contain elements of work outside the scope of the discrete projects in it.

A portfolio, on the other hand, is a collection of projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. The projects or programs within the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.

A program is about managing related projects collectively to reap benefits, whereas a portfolio is about selecting and managing the right mix of projects and programs to align with the organization’s strategic objectives.




What is the difference between a program manager and a portfolio manager?

The main difference between a program manager and a portfolio manager is that a program manager’s role is more tactical and focused on delivering a set of related projects, while a portfolio manager’s role is more strategic, focusing on aligning all projects and programs with the organization’s strategy.

A program manager oversees a group of related projects, ensuring they are coordinated and managed in a way that maximizes benefits and controls risks that wouldn’t be possible if the projects were managed individually. They are responsible for achieving the strategic goals set for the program, managing interdependencies among the projects, and delivering the program’s overall benefits.

A portfolio manager oversees an organization’s portfolio, which includes multiple projects and programs, potentially across different departments or areas of business. The portfolio manager’s role is more strategic, focusing on ensuring the portfolio aligns with the organization’s strategic objectives, managing resource allocation across the portfolio, balancing risks and returns among the different projects and programs, and maximizing the value of the overall portfolio.




What is the difference between portfolio and project work?

The difference between portfolio and project work can be summarised as:

  • Portfolio work involves managing a group of projects and programs to achieve strategic objectives. Portfolio management encompasses the selection and oversight of projects.
  • Project work focuses on the execution of a single project to achieve its specific objectives. Project management involves the execution and delivery of the project itself.



What is the difference between project and portfolio management?

The difference between project and portfolio management can be summarised as:

  • Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to successfully complete a specific project. It involves the applying knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to meet project requirements and deliver desired outcomes within cost, scope, schedule, and quality constraints.
  • Portfolio management is the strategic management of a collection of projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations to achieve organizational goals. It involves selecting and prioritizing projects or programs based on their alignment with strategic objectives, optimizing resource allocation, balancing risk, and maximizing value across the entire portfolio.



Why is project portfolio management important?

Project portfolio management is important for 5 main reasons:

  1. Strategic alignment

  2. It ensures that projects and programs are aligned with the organization’s strategic goals and objectives. This alignment ensures that resources are allocated to initiatives that contribute the most value and support the organization’s overall strategy.

  3. Optimized resource allocation

  4. Project portfolio management helps organizations make informed decisions about resource allocation. By assessing project priorities, dependencies, and resource availability, it enables efficient allocation of resources, reducing bottlenecks and maximizing productivity.

  5. Risk Management

  6. A portfolio perspective allows organizations to assess and manage risks at a higher level. By evaluating project risks collectively, portfolio managers can identify and address risks that may not be apparent at the individual project level, making informed decisions to mitigate potential negative impacts.

  7. Portfolio performance monitoring

  8. Project portfolio management provides a comprehensive view of the performance of projects and programs. It enables monitoring and tracking of key performance indicators, allowing organizations to assess the progress, make adjustments, and take corrective actions to ensure successful project delivery and desired outcomes.

  9. Optimal decision-making

  10. With project portfolio management, organizations can make data-driven decisions regarding project initiation, continuation, or termination. It provides a structured framework to evaluate project proposals, prioritize investments, and select the most valuable projects to pursue.


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